Mechanism of action
The PPAR-gamma receptor is an intracellular nuclear receptor. It's natural ligands are free fatty acids and it is thought to control adipocyte differentiation and function.
- Weight gain
- Liver impairment: monitor LFTs
- Fluid retention - therefore contraindicated in heart failure. The risk of fluid retention is increased if the patient also takes insulin
- Recent studies have indicated an increased risk of fractures
- Bladder cancer: recent studies have shown an increased risk of bladder cancer in patients taking pioglitazone (hazard ratio 2.64)