Raised intracranial pressure


As the brain and ventricles are enclosed by a rigid skull, they have a limited ability to accommodate additional volume. Additional volume (e.g. haematoma, tumour, excessive CSF) will therefore lead to a rise in intracranial pressure (ICP).


  • the normal ICP is 7-15 mmHg in adults in the supine position
  • cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is the net pressure gradient causing cerebral blood flow to the brain
  • CPP = mean arterial pressure - ICP

Clinical features