- Incidence: 100.00 cases per 100,000 person-years
- Peak incidence: 60-70 years
- Sex ratio: 1:1
- Proximal avulsion fractures (pseudo-Jones fractures): most common type. Occurs at the proximal tuberosity. Usually associated with a lateral ankle sprain and often follow inversion injuries of the ankle.
- Jones fractures: much less common. This is a transverse fracture at the metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction.
Metatarsal stress fractures
- Occurs in otherwise healthy athletes, e.g. runners
- The most common site of metatarsal stress fractures is the 2nd metatarsal shaft
- Pain and bony tenderness
- Antalgic gait
- X-rays: distinguishes between displaced and non-displaced fractures. This differentiation guides subsequent management options. Although stress fractures may appear normal on X-ray, sometimes there is a periosteal reaction seen on 2-3 weeks later.
- Isotope scan or MRI: in the case of stress fractures, X-rays are often normal and may remain normal in up to half of all cases. An isotope bone scan or MRI may help to establish the presence of a stress fracture.