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Please enter at least one feature (symptom, sign or investigation result) before performing the calculation.
For example, if chest pain and low oxygen saturations were present, but haemoptysis was absent, the features section should look as follows:
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A hydrocele describes the accumulation of fluid within the tunica vaginalis. This results in a scrotal swelling.
Hydroceles can be divided into communicating and non-communicating:
communicating: caused by patency of the processus vaginalis allowing peritoneal fluid to drain down into the scrotum. Communicating hydroceles are common in newborn males (clinically apparent in 5-10%) and usually resolve within the first few months of life
non-communicating: caused by excessive fluid production within the tunica vaginalis
soft, non-tender swelling of the hemi-scrotum. Usually anterior to and below the testicle
the swelling is confined to the scrotum, you can get 'above' the mass on examination
transilluminates with a pen torch
the testis may be difficult to palpate if the hydrocele is large
Diagnosis may be clinical but ultrasound is required if there is any doubt about the diagnosis or if the underlying testis cannot be palpated.
infantile hydroceles are generally repaired if they do not resolve spontaneously by the age of 1-2 years
in adults a conservative approach may be taken depending on the severity of the presentation. Further investigation (e.g. ultrasound) is usually warranted however to exclude any underlying cause such as a tumour