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Please enter at least one feature (symptom, sign or investigation result) before performing the calculation.
For example, if chest pain and low oxygen saturations were present, but haemoptysis was absent, the features section should look as follows:
To add a feature that is present, start typing and then click the green arrow.
To add the absence of a feature (i.e. a 'negative' finding), start typing then click the red cross.
If you want to remove a feature from the list simply click the grey cross in the box to the right of the feature.
Femoral hernias occur when a section of the bowel or any other part of the abdominal viscera pass into the femoral canal. The canal is usually a densely packed area of the anterior thigh, however, it is a potential space which can become occupied by herniated contents via the femoral ring.
Surgical repair is a necessity, given the risk of strangulation, and can be carried out either laparoscopically or via a laparotomy;
Hernia support belts/trusses should not be used for femoral hernias, again due to the risk of strangulation;
In an emergency situation, a laparotomy may be the only option.
Incarceration, where the herniated tissue cannot be reduced;
Strangulation, which can follow on from incarceration, and is a surgical emergency that requires urgent management (see below). These hernias will be tender and likely non-reducible, and may also present with a systemically unwell patient. The risk of strangulation is much higher with femoral hernias than inguinal hernias and increases as the time from diagnosis rises;
Bowel obstruction, again a surgical emergency;
Bowel ischaemia and resection due to the above, which may lead to significant morbidity and mortality for the patient.