• Incidence: 170.00 cases per 100,000 person-years
  • Peak incidence: 30-40 years
  • Sex ratio: more common in males 2:1
<1 1-5 6+ 16+ 30+ 40+ 50+ 60+ 70+ 80+

Clinical features


Referral criteria

Indications for referral to ophthalmology
  • Suspected penetrating eye injury due to high-velocity injuries (e.g. drilling, lawn moving or hammering) or sharp objects (e.g. as glass, knives, pencils or thorns)
  • Significant orbital or peri-ocular trauma has occurred.
  • A chemical injury has occurred (irrigate for 20-30 mins before referring)
  • Foreign bodies composed of organic material (such as seeds, soil) should be referred to ophthalmology as these are associated with a higher risk of infection and complications
  • Foreign bodies in or near the centre of the cornea
  • Any red flags e.g. severe pain; irregular, dilated or non-reactive pupils; significant reduction in visual acuity.